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Regarding Endotoxin

Yen-Ming Hsu

Regarding Endotoxin

The interaction of endotoxins with TLR (Toll-like receptor)/CD14/MD2 receptor complexes and a variety of TRP (transient receptor potential) ion channels can activate a broad spectrum of cells which can be a source of significant variability of the experimental background. Protein reagents produced by ABB contain very low levels of endotoxin and are suitable for most in vitro and in vivo studies. 1. What is endotoxin Endotoxin was considered to be a toxin retained inside the bacterial cell as in contrast to the exotoxin that is released into the surroundings by live bacteria, although subsequent work showed that endotoxin can be...

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Regarding Control Antibody

Yen-Ming Hsu

Regarding Control Antibody

A control antibody is essential for validating specificity of a testing antibody. A properly chosen control antibody helps to eliminate most if not all difficulties in sorting out specific vs non-specific activities of a testing antibody. Depending upon the nature of antibody studies, considerations other than isotype-match are necessary in order to clearly demonstrate the specificity of the testing antibody.  These include off-target antigen reactivity, Fc glycosylation patterns and effector functions, protein intactness, homogeneity in solution, formulation, and endotoxin contents. This blog discusses each one of these considerations to help selecting a proper control antibody for various applications which are...

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Regarding Fc Receptors

Yen-Ming Hsu

Regarding Fc Receptors

IgG Fc receptors By interacting with antigen at one end and cell surface Fc receptors on another, antibody effectively brings together the humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Based on their functionality, Fc -interacting proteins can be categorized into two groups.  One group of receptors on the surface of various effector cells are capable of trigger biological responses when interacting with antigen-antibody complexes. Among these receptors, the Fcγ receptors and Fc𝛆 receptors for interacting with IgG and IgE, respectively, are best characterized. The second group of receptors are responsible for transporting antibodies across epithelial tissues. These include the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)...

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