CD86 acts as a T cell co-stimulatory ligand via its interaction with CD28 and acts as a T cell activation inhibitory ligand via its interaction with CTLA-4. CD86 interacts with CTLA-4 with 20-100 folds high affinity than to CD28. P093F contains both extracellular IgV and IgC domains of human B7-2 and is fused with a mouse IgG2a Fc domain.
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|Synonym:||CD86, B70, Activation, B7-2 antigen, BU63, Fun-1|
|MW (Calculated):||52,580 daltons|
|MW (SDS-PAGE):||55 Kd|
|Abs 0.1% (= 1 mg/ml):||1.065|
B7-2 and B7-1 are composed of a membrane distal IgV and membrane-proximal IgC domains in their extracellular regions. While B7-2 and B7-1 share similar extracellular Ig folds and can bind to both CD28 and CTLA-4, the intracellular domains of these two molecules share no homology indicating each bears distinct signaling mechanism. Both B7-2 and B7-1 bind to CD28 at lower affinity than to CTLA-4. For binding to CTLA-4, B7-2 has a lower affinity than B7-1. The apparent dimeric structure of B7-2 and B7-1 leads to unique B7-receptor alternating zipper-like complexes.
B7-2 is expressed at high levels on resting monocytes, but not resting T or B lymphocytes. The IgV of B7-2 binds to CD28 and CTLA-4 with the same affinity as those of the full length extracellular domain, yet both IgV and IgC domains of B7-1 are required for optimal binding to these receptors. B7-2 is up-regulated on activated B- , T-lymphocytes, monocytes and Langerhans cells within 24 hours, followed by the up-regulation of the B7-1 at about day 3. Interactions of B7-2 and B7-1 with CD28 provide positive co-stimulatory signals for activated T cells.
The B7-2 deficiency has a more profound immunological impact on function of T cells (such as T-dependent antibody production) than B7-1 deficiency. Some studies suggest that the co-stimulatory activity of B7-2 is skewed toward Th2, and B7-1, Th1, response.
Amino Acid Sequence
- Cloning of B7-2: a CTLA-4 counter-receptor that costimulates human T cell proliferation. Freeman G.J., Gribben J.G., Boussiotis V.A., Ng J.W., Restivo V.A. Jr., Lombard L.A., Gray G.S., Nadler L.M. Science 262:909-911 (1993)
- CD80 (B7) and CD86 (B70) provide similar costimulatory signals for T cell proliferation, cytokine production, and generation of CTL. Lanier L.L., O'Fallon S., Somoza C., Phillips J.H., Linsley P.S., Okumura K., Ito D., Azuma M.J. Immunol. 154:97-105 (1995)
- The B7-2 (B70) costimulatory molecule expressed by monocytes and activated B lymphocytes is the CD86 differentiation antigen. Engel P., Gribben J.G., Freeman G.J., Zhou L.J., Nozawa Y., Abe M., Nadler L.M., Wakasa H., Tedder T.F. Blood 84:1402-1407 (1994)