PD-L1, also known as B7-H1, is a member of the B7 family. Interaction of PD-L1 to PD-1 attenuates T cell activity during an inflammatory response to infection and to limit autoimmunity. P7101F contains human PD-L1 ECD fused to the mouse IgG2a Fc domain.
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|MW (Calculated):||52,399 daltons|
|MW (SDS-PAGE):||55 Kd|
|Abs 0.1% (= 1 mg/ml):||1.125|
PD-L1 also called B7-H1 as it was the first found homolog of B7-1 and B7-2(CD86) identified by searching human cDNA expressed tags and was subsequently found to be the ligand for PD-1. Like other proteins of B7 family, it contains the IgV and IgC domains in its extracellular region. The major function of PD-1 is to limit T cell activity during an inflammatory response to infection and to limit autoimmunity.
In this capacity, PD-1 regulates effector T cell activity and plays a critical role in resistance of tumor cells to immune surveillance. In contrast, CTLA-4 functions as a signal dampener for T cell activation. Engagement of PD-1 with its ligand (PD-L1 and PD-L2) triggers inhibitory signaling, diminishes cell proliferation and cytokine production. The PD-1/PDL1/PDL2 axis is therefore widely demonstrated to contribute to failed antitumor immunity. PD-L1 is expressed in many tumors and tumor cell line, and appears to be associated with poor outcomes in solid malignancy, while PD-1 expression by infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) also confers poor prognosis.
Interestingly, both Pd-1 deficient and wt-Pd-1 mice treated with anti PD-L1 antibody exhibited excellent rejection of PD-L1-expressing tumors. These observations suggestion a PD-1-dependent and a PD-1 independent pathway can be triggered by anti-PD-L1 antibody.
Amino Acid Sequence
1. B7-H1, a third member of the B7 family, co-stimulates T-cell proliferation and interleukin-10 secretion Haidong Dong, Gefeng Zhu, Koji Tamada & Lieping Chen Nature Medicine 5:1365 - 1369 (1999)
2. The role of the PD-1 pathway in autoimmunity and peripheral tolerance. Fife B.T., Pauken K.E. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1217:45-59 (2011)
3. The role of B7 family molecules in hematologic malignancy. Greaves P, Gribben JG. Blood. 121:734-44 (2013)