TL1A, a type II membrane protein and a member of the TNF ligand family, is also known as vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI)-251. Although TL1A was identified as a longer variant of TL1/VEGI, it has been presumed that the original TL1/VEGI was a cloning artifact.
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|Synonym:||TNFSF15, MGC129934, MGC129935, TL1, TL1A, VEGI, VEGI192A|
|Tag:||Mouse IgG2a Fc|
|Construction:||Mouse IgG2a Fc-Human TL1A (L72-L251)|
|MW (calculated):||47,137 daltons|
|MW (SDS-PAGE):||50 Kd|
|Abs 0.1% (= 1 mg/ml):||1.153|
TL1A, a type II membrane protein and a member of the TNF ligand family, is also known as vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI)-251. Although TL1A was identified as a longer variant of TL1/VEGI, it has been presumed that the original TL1/VEGI was a cloning artifact. TL1A is initially expressed as a membrane-bound protein and is subsequently released as a soluble protein via ectodomain shedding by a metalloproteinase such as TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE).
TL1A is constitutively expressed by endothelial cells, such as the human umbilical vein endothelial cells, synovial fibroblast-like cells, the vascular endothelial cells in the kidney and prostate and can be up-regulated by stimulation with TNF-α, IL-1, and PMA. In addition, TL1A can be transiently induced in macrophage and dendritic cells upon activation by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, enteric bacteria, and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) crosslinking. TL1A binds to two receptors, DR3 and DcR3.
TL1A-DR3 interaction forms a part of the inflammatory cytokine network and contribute to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and intestinal bowl disease (IBS). The DcR3 functions as a decoy receptor for TL1A as well as FasL and LIGHT.
Amino Acid Sequence
1. Migone TS, Zhang J, Luo X, Zhuang L, Chen C, et al, (2002) TL1A is a TNF-like ligand for DR3 and TR6/DcR3 and functions as a T cell costimulator. Immunity 16(3):479-492.
2. Zhang J, Salcedo TW, Wan X, Ullrich S, Hu B, Gregorio T, et al. (2001) Modulation of T-cell responses to alloantigens by TR6/DcR3. J Clin Invest 107:1459-1468.
3. Meylan F, Song YJ, Fuss I, Villarreal S, Kahle E, Malm IJ, et al. (2011) The TNF-family cytokine TL1A drives IL-13-dependent small intestinal inflammation. Mucosal Immunol. 4:172-185.
4. Bull MJ, Williams AS, Mecklenburgh Z, Calder CJ, Twohig JP, et al. (2008) The Death Receptor 3-TNF-like protein 1A pathway drives adverse bone pathology in inflammatory arthritis. J Exp Med. 205:2457-2464.